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Intimate Partner Violence

PhD project on Intimate Partner Violence: Campaigns tailored for victimized men by Eduardo Reis under my supervision, Carla Moleiro & Xavier Hospital

REFERENCE: PD/BD/135441/2017

YEARS: 2018-2023

This project, comprising several studies, investigated the under-researched area of intimate partner violence targeting men in different-sex and same-sex relationships. Employing a mixed methods approach and grounding the research in theoretical models of behavioral change, health risk perception, and persuasion, it aims to understand and facilitate help-seeking behaviors among men who are targets of IPV in these relationships.

The research indicated that these men face various forms of significant violence, often compounded by internal conflicts related to their gender roles. A critical finding is the lack of awareness about intimate partner violence itself and the available help-seeking services, which affects their willingness to seek help. 
The project highlights the importance of adapting social norms, especially regarding the use of helplines, to enhance men’s intentions to seek help.

The studies reveal that men targeted by intimate partner violence are mostly unaware of existing intimate partner violence campaigns. They express a need for authentic representation in these campaigns, preferring to avoid the label of "victim." The thesis also suggests that the effectiveness of intimate partner violence campaigns could be improved by integrating theoretical insights and highlighting the prevalence of help-seeking among men in similar circumstances.

The thesis contributes to the understanding of the challenges faced by under-represented populations in intimate partner violence situations, examining how their help-seeking behavior is influenced and can be better supported. It argues that public IPV campaigns can be a vital tool in encouraging men to seek help. Future research should focus on tailoring health risk-related content to resonate with diverse groups of men in different-sex and same-sex relationships, ensuring their inclusive representation in these campaigns.

Patrícia Arriaga (ISCTE-IUL)
Carla Moleiro (ISCTE-IUL)
Xavier Hospital (UNESCO)


  • Reis, E., Arriaga, P., Moleiro, C. Hospital, X. (2020). Pictorial campaigns of intimate partner violence focusing on victimized men: A systematic content analysis. Frontiers in Psychology.

  • Reis, E., Moleiro, C., & Arriaga, P. (2023). Intimate Partner Violence directed at Men: Experiences of Violence, Help-seeking, and Potential Gender Role Conflict among Portuguese Men. Sexuality & Culture.

  • Reis, E., Moleiro, C., & Arriaga, P. (2023). Intentions to call a helpline among victims of Intimate Partner Violence: The role of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Gender Role Conflict. Violence and Victims.

  • Reis, E., Arriaga, P., Moleiro, C. (2022). Men who suffered Intimate Partner Violence: Impressions about existing public campaigns and recommendations for new ones. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

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